USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. This is the global standard that defines specifications and protocols for connectors, cables, and how they communicate with other devices. Everyone has used some form of USB port at one time or another. For example, the port on your laptop that lets you connect an external keyboard, mouse, or flash drive is a USB Type-A port. Then there are other types, such as micro USB and USB Type-C. While older Android phones use micro USB, most modern smartphones have a USC-C connector. The main difference between these ports is in the charging standards they follow.
Generally speaking, Android smartphones support one of two charging standards: USB PD and OEM-specific or proprietary. The USB PD (Universal Serial Bus Power Delivery) standard has been around for about 10 years and works with USB-C ports. It supports up to 240W of power, making it ideal for multiple devices such as laptops, tablets, power banks, etc. (via USB.org). Moreover, the high power delivery capability allows manufacturers to configure according to their needs with enough headroom.
On the other hand, several companies like Oppo and OnePlus have developed proprietary charging standards that use the Type-C port. While these standards support fast charging, they are device-specific. For example, the Samsung Galaxy S22 Ultra comes with Super Fast Charging, a USB-compliant standard.